Encyclopaedia of pests and natural enemies

The encyclopaedia provides at-a-glance information on the pests and natural enemies associated with cropping systems.

Our encyclopaedia details the major and minor pests and natural enemies commonly associated with cropping rotations. Use it help prevent, detect and control pest populations in field crops, as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy.

The landmark publication is the result of collaboration between AHDB’s crop sectors – cereals and oilseeds, horticulture and potatoes – respected crop entomologists and a host of other leading organisations, including BBRO and PGRO.

The heavily illustrated publication covers hundreds of crop pests (including beetles, bugs, aphids, flies, moths, butterflies and nematodes) known to affect one or more of the following crops – alliums, carrots, cereals, field beans, lettuce, oilseed rape, peas, potatoes, sugar beet and vegetable brassicas.

For each pest, the latest information on the importance of the pest to cropping is presented as well as information on identification, risk factors, life cycle, monitoring, control thresholds, non-chemical control and insecticide-resistance status (where known).

Managing pests while encouraging and supporting beneficial insects is seen as a key part of IPM and the publication has a section dedicated to natural pest enemies. The section, which contains descriptions and images of natural enemies, describes ways to farm to help promote a balance between pests and their predators.

IPM: the three main programme components

Prevent – suppress pest populations and the risk of economic damage. For example, use natural enemies, sow resistant varieties and manage rotations.

Detect – monitor pest/beneficial populations to determine when chemical control is justifiable. Includes the use of crop inspections, pest trapping, forecasts and thresholds.

Control – return pest populations to below damaging levels. Prioritise biological and physical methods over chemical interventions, where possible. Always manage environmental and resistance risks associated with the use of plant protection products.

Visit our IPM web pages

Example pests and natural enemies

Examples of crop pests (green circles) and natural enemies (blue circles)


Natural enemies


Cabbage stem flea beetle


Carabid beetle


Bird cherry–oat aphid


Parasitic wasp


Grain aphid




Grey field slug


Available in print

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Related publications (AHDB Cereals & Oilseeds)

Further resources




Acrolepiopsis assectella leek moth Acyrthosiphon pisum pea aphid Agriotes wireworms Agrotis segetum cutworms Aleocharinae Aleyrodes proletella cabbage whitefly Allium leaf miner Phytomyza gymnostoma Ants Formicidae Aphids Aphis fabae black bean aphid Aphis nasturtii buckthorn–potato aphid Arion garden slug Assassin bugs Reduviidae Athalia rosae turnip sawfly Atomaria linearis pygmy beetle Autographa gamma silver Y moth Balloon and dagger flies Empididae BYDV Bean leaf roll virus BLRV Bean seed flies Delia platura and Delia florilega Bean yellow mosaic virus BYMV Beet chlorosis virus BChV Beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Beet leaf miner Pegomya hyoscyami Beet mild yellowing virus BMYV Beet yellows virus BYV Beetles Coleoptera Beneficial insects Bird cherry–oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi Aphis fabae Boettgerilla spp. keeled slug Brassica leaf miner Scaptomyza flava Dasineura brassicae Brevicoryne brassicae mealy cabbage aphid Bruchid beetle Bruchus rufimanus Aphis nasturtii Bugs Hemiptera Butterflies Lepidoptera Cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae Cabbage leaf miner Phytomyza rufipes Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Cabbage root fly Delia radicum Cabbage seed weevil Ceutorhynchus assimilis Psylliodes chrysocephala Cabbage stem weevil Ceutorhynchus quadridens Aleyrodes proletella Caliothrips fasciatus thrips Carrot fly Psila rosae Carrot motley dwarf disease Cauliflower mosaic virus CaMV Cavariella aegopodii willow–carrot aphid Centipedes Chilopoda Cephus pygmaeus cereal stem sawfly Cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae Cereal ground beetle Zabrus tenebrioides Cereal leaf beetle Oulema melanopa Cephus pygmaeus Ceutorhynchus assimilis Ceutorhynchus pictarsis rape winter stem weevil Ceutorhynchus quadridens Chafer grubs Melolontha melolontha Chlorops pumilionis gout fly Click beetles Elateridae Cnephasia asseclana flax tortrix moth Coleoptera Colorado beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Contarinia nasturtii swede midge Contarinia pisi pea midge Contarinia tritici yellow wheat blossom midge Crane flies Tipula spp. Currant–lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri Noctuid moths Cydia nigricana pea moth Damsel bugs Nabidae Dance flies Hybotidae Dasineura brassicae brassica pod midge Delia antiqua onion fly Delia coarctata wheat bulb fly Delia spp. Delia radicum Deroceras spp. grey field slug Diamond-back moth Plutella xylostella Diptera flies Ditylenchus dipsaci stem nematode Docking disorder Dung flies Scathophagidae Evergestis forficalis garden pebble moth Fanging Field thrips Thrips angusticeps Cnephasia asseclana Flea beetles Diptera Flower and pirate bugs Anthocoridae Free-living nematodes Frit fly Oscinella frit Gall midges Cecidomyiidae Evergestis forficalis Arion spp. Ghost moth Hepialus humuli Globodera spp. potato cyst nematode Chlorops pumilionis Grain aphid Sitobion avenae Deroceras spp. Ground beetles Carabidae Haplodiplosis marginata Helophorus nubilus wheat shoot beetle Hemiptera Hepialus humuli Hepialus lupulinus swift moth Heterodera avenae Heterodera goettingiana pea cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Hoverflies Syrphidae Hymenoptera sawflies wasps ants and bees Kakothrips pisivorus pea thrips Milax Tandonia and Boettgerilla spp. Korscheltellus lupulinus swift moth Lacewings Neuroptera Ladybirds Coccinellidae Large white butterfly Pieris brassicae Leatherjackets Tipula spp. Acrolepiopsis assectella Lepidoptera moths and butterflies Leptinotarsa decemlineata Colorado beetle Lettuce root aphid Pemphigus bursarius Longidorus spp. needle nematodes Long-legged flies Dolichopodidae Lygus rugulipennis tarnished plant bug Macrosiphum euphorbiae potato aphid Mamestra brassicae Brevicoryne brassicae Meligethes spp. pollen beetle Meloidogyne spp. root knot nematode Melolontha melolontha Metopolophium dirhodum rose–grain aphid Milax spp. keeled slug Millipedes Mites Moths Lepidoptera Myzus persicae peach–potato aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri Natural enemies Longidorus spp. Nematodes Nematoda Noctuid moths cutworms Delia antiqua Onion thrips Thrips tabaci Opomyza florum yellow cereal fly Orange wheat blossom midge Sitodiplosis mosellana Oscinella frit Oulema melanopa Parasitic wasps Parasitoids Paratrichodorus spp. stubby root nematodes Parsnip yellow fleck virus PYFV Pea and bean weevil Sitona lineatus Acyrthosiphon pisum Heterodera goettingiana Pea enation mosaic virus PEMV Contarinia pisi Cydia nigricana Pea seed-borne mosaic virus PSbMV Kakothrips pisivorus Myzus persicae Pegomya hyoscyami Pemphigus bursarius Phytomyza gymnostoma Phytomyza rufipes Pieris brassicae Pieris rapae small white butterfly Plutella xylostella Meligethes spp. Macrosiphum euphorbiae Globodera spp. Potato leafhoppers Potato leaf roll virus PLRV Potato virus A PVA Potato virus Y PVY Psila rosae Psylliodes chrysocephala cabbage stem flea beetle Atomaria linearis Ceutorhynchus pictarsis Rhopalosiphum padi Robber flies Asilidae Meloidogyne spp. Metopolophium dirhodum Rove beetles Staphylinidae Saddle gall midge Haplodiplosis marginata Hymenoptera Scaptomyza flava Autographa gamma Sitobion avenae Sitodiplosis mosellana Sitona lineatus Pieris rapae Soil pest complex Soldier beetles Cantharidae Spiders mites Arachnida Spraing Springtails Ditylenchus dipsaci Contarinia nasturtii Korscheltellus lupulinus Symphylids Tandonia spp. keeled slug Lygus rugulipennis Tetranychus urticae two-spotted spider mites Thysanoptera Thrips angusticeps field thrips Thrips tabaci Thysanoptera thrips Tipula spp. Tobacco rattle virus TRV Trichodorus spp. stubby root nematodes Turnip mosaic virus TuMV Turnip moth Agrotis segetum Athalia rosae TuYV Tetranychus urticae Hymenoptera Delia coarctata Helophorus nubilus Wheat stem sawfly Cephus pygmaeus Cavariella aegopodii Agriotes spp. Opomyza florum Contarinia tritici Zabrus tenebrioides