UK and EU cow numbers

Updated 16 March 2022

These figures track annual changes in cow numbers in the UK and within the EU. You can also dig deeper into the statistics and have a look at cow numbers by country, and for England, by county.

Overview - UK

  • As of June 2021, the total number of dairy cows in the UK greater than 12 months old stood at 2.62 million head, 10,000 head (-0.4%)  less than  at the same point in the previous year, according to data from Defra.
  • In June, the milking herd totalled 1.85 million head. This was the same number of animals that at the same point in the previous year.
  • The number of female cattle aged over 24 months also saw a decline, falling by 31,000 head on the year to 235,000. The number of female dairy cattle aged between 12 and 24 months increased by 18,000 head compared to the previous year's value of 518,000.

Overview - EU

  • In 2020, there were 20.5 million dairy cows in the EU-ex UK. This was 1.1% (220,000 head) less than in 2019.
  • Germany had the largest dairy cow population within the EU-ex UK. Last year, 3.9 million dairy cows were recorded in the nation, which accounted for nearly 19% of the total EU-ex UK dairy population.
  • Malta continued to be the smallest milk producing nation within the EU-ex UK, with just 6,060 dairy cows recorded in 2020.
  • The majority of EU-ex-UK countries recorded an annual decline in cow numbers in 2020. Germany recorded the largest loss with 90,260 (2.2%) fewer animals that in the previous year.
  • Ireland recorded the largest expansion within the EU28 (ex-UK) last year. The population reached 1.456 million head, up 30,290 head (2.1%) on the year.

Additional information

Please note, different methods are used for calculating cow numbers in the UK. Cattle Tracing System (CTS) data has been used by Wales since 2004, England since 2005 and Scotland since 2006. Since 2005, Northern Ireland has used APHIS.

Contact us

This dataset was produced by our Data and Analysis Team. To find out more about the team, please visit the Data and Analysis team page.

If you need any further help, please email Martin, Dorian, Ian or Esther at

Download datasets

Dairy cow numbers in the UK

Average size of dairy herd in UK by country

Distribution of cows in UK by herd size by country

Visit the Defra website for cow numbers in England by county

On the "Structure of the agricultural industry in England and the UK at June" page, under "English geographical breakdowns" cow numbers by county breakdowns in England are given in the "local authority" and "regional and county/ unitary authority" downloads.

Dairy cow numbers in the EU

While AHDB seeks to ensure that the information contained on this webpage is accurate at the time of publication, no warranty is given in respect of the information and data provided. You are responsible for how you use the information. To the maximum extent permitted by law, AHDB accepts no liability for loss, damage or injury howsoever caused or suffered (including that caused by negligence) directly or indirectly in relation to the information or data provided in this publication.

All intellectual property rights in the information and data on this webpage belong to or are licensed by AHDB. You are authorised to use such information for your internal business purposes only and you must not provide this information to any other third parties, including further publication of the information, or for commercial gain in any way whatsoever without the prior written permission of AHDB for each third party disclosure, publication or commercial arrangement. For more information, please see our Terms of Use and Privacy Notice or contact the Director of Corporate Affairs at  © Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board. All rights reserved.