Encyclopaedia of pests and natural enemies

The encyclopaedia provides information on the identification, risk factors, life cycle, monitoring, control thresholds, non-chemical control and insecticide resistance (where known) of major and minor pests commonly associated with cropping systems.

The Encyclopaedia of pests and natural enemies in field crops details both the major and minor pests commonly associated with cropping rotations.

The landmark publication is the result of collaboration between AHDB’s crop sectors – cereals and oilseeds, horticulture and potatoes – respected crop entomologists and a host of other leading organisations, including PGRO.

The heavily illustrated publication covers hundreds of crop pests (including beetles, bugs, aphids, flies, moths, butterflies and nematodes) known to affect one or more of the following crops – cereals, oilseeds, vegetable brassicas, potatoes, carrots, alliums, peas, field beans, sugar beet and lettuce.

For each pest, the latest information on the importance of the pest to cropping is presented as well as information on identification, risk factors, life cycle, monitoring, control thresholds, non-chemical control and insecticide-resistance status (where known).

Managing pests while encouraging and supporting beneficial insects is seen as a key part of IPM and the publication has an entire section dedicated to natural pest enemies.

The section, which contains descriptions and images of natural enemies, describes ways to farm to help promote a balance between pests and their predators.

Integrated pest management

Integrated pest management (IPM) considers all measures that discourage the development of populations of harmful organisms. IPM keeps the use of plant protection products and other forms of intervention to levels that are economically and ecologically justified, and reduce or minimise risks to human health and the environment. 

Search our knowledge library for IPM information

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Oats Acrolepiopsis assectella leek moth Acyrthosiphon pisum pea aphid Agriotes wireworms Agrotis segetum cutworms Aleocharinae Aleyrodes proletella cabbage whitefly Allium leaf miner Phytomyza gymnostoma Ants Formicidae Aphids Aphis fabae black bean aphid Aphis nasturtii buckthorn–potato aphid Arion garden slug Assassin bugs Reduviidae Athalia rosae turnip sawfly Atomaria linearis pygmy beetle Autographa gamma silver Y moth Balloon and dagger flies Empididae Barley yellow dwarf virus BYDV Bean leaf roll virus BLRV Bean seed flies Delia platura and Delia florilega Bean yellow mosaic virus BYMV Beet chlorosis virus BChV Beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Beet leaf miner Pegomya hyoscyami Beet mild yellowing virus BMYV Beet yellows virus BYV Beetles Coleoptera Beneficial insects Bird cherry–oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi Black bean aphid Aphis fabae Boettgerilla spp. keeled slug Brassica leaf miner Scaptomyza flava Brassica pod midge Dasineura brassicae Brevicoryne brassicae mealy cabbage aphid Bruchid beetle Bruchus rufimanus Buckthorn–potato aphid Aphis nasturtii Bugs Hemiptera Butterflies Lepidoptera Cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae Cabbage leaf miner Phytomyza rufipes Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Cabbage root fly Delia radicum Cabbage seed weevil Ceutorhynchus assimilis Cabbage stem flea beetle Psylliodes chrysocephala Cabbage stem weevil Ceutorhynchus quadridens Cabbage whitefly Aleyrodes proletella Caliothrips fasciatus thrips Carrot fly Psila rosae Carrot motley dwarf disease Cauliflower mosaic virus CaMV Cavariella aegopodii willow–carrot aphid Centipedes Chilopoda Cephus pygmaeus cereal stem sawfly Cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae Cereal ground beetle Zabrus tenebrioides Cereal leaf beetle Oulema melanopa Cereal stem sawfly Cephus pygmaeus Ceutorhynchus assimilis cabbage seed weevil Ceutorhynchus pictarsis rape winter stem weevil Ceutorhynchus quadridens cabbage stem weevil Chafer grubs Melolontha melolontha Chlorops pumilionis gout fly Click beetles Elateridae Cnephasia asseclana flax tortrix moth Coleoptera beetles Colorado beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Contarinia nasturtii swede midge Contarinia pisi pea midge Contarinia tritici yellow wheat blossom midge Crane flies Tipula spp. Currant–lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri Cutworms Noctuid moths Cydia nigricana pea moth Damsel bugs Nabidae Dance flies Hybotidae Dasineura brassicae brassica pod midge Delia antiqua onion fly Delia coarctata wheat bulb fly Delia spp. bean seed flies Delia radicum cabbage root fly Deroceras spp. grey field slug Diamond-back moth Plutella xylostella Diptera flies Ditylenchus dipsaci stem nematode Docking disorder Dung flies Scathophagidae Evergestis forficalis garden pebble moth Fanging Field thrips Thrips angusticeps Flax tortrix moth Cnephasia asseclana Flea beetles Flies Diptera Flower and pirate bugs Anthocoridae Free-living nematodes Frit fly Oscinella frit Gall midges Cecidomyiidae Garden pebble moth Evergestis forficalis Garden slug Arion spp. Ghost moth Hepialus humuli Globodera spp. potato cyst nematode Gout fly Chlorops pumilionis Grain aphid Sitobion avenae Grey field slug Deroceras spp. Ground beetles Carabidae Haplodiplosis marginata saddle gall midge Helophorus nubilus wheat shoot beetle Hemiptera bugs Hepialus humuli ghost moth Hepialus lupulinus swift moth Heterodera avenae cereal cyst nematode Heterodera goettingiana pea cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii beet cyst nematode Hoverflies Syrphidae Hymenoptera sawflies wasps ants and bees Kakothrips pisivorus pea thrips Keeled slug Milax Tandonia and Boettgerilla spp. Korscheltellus lupulinus swift moth Lacewings Neuroptera Ladybirds Coccinellidae Large white butterfly Pieris brassicae Leatherjackets Tipula spp. Leek moth Acrolepiopsis assectella Lepidoptera moths and butterflies Leptinotarsa decemlineata Colorado beetle Lettuce root aphid Pemphigus bursarius Longidorus spp. needle nematodes Long-legged flies Dolichopodidae Lygus rugulipennis tarnished plant bug Macrosiphum euphorbiae potato aphid Mamestra brassicae cabbage moth Mealy cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae Meligethes spp. pollen beetle Meloidogyne spp. root knot nematode Melolontha melolontha chafer grubs Metopolophium dirhodum rose–grain aphid Milax spp. keeled slug Millipedes Mites Moths Lepidoptera Myzus persicae peach–potato aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri currant–lettuce aphid Natural enemies Needle nematodes Longidorus spp. Nematodes Nematoda Noctuid moths cutworms Onion fly Delia antiqua Onion thrips Thrips tabaci Opomyza florum yellow cereal fly Orange wheat blossom midge Sitodiplosis mosellana Oscinella frit frit fly Oulema melanopa cereal leaf beetle Parasitic wasps Parasitoids Paratrichodorus spp. stubby root nematodes Parsnip yellow fleck virus PYFV Pea and bean weevil Sitona lineatus Pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Pea cyst nematode Heterodera goettingiana Pea enation mosaic virus PEMV Pea midge Contarinia pisi Pea moth Cydia nigricana Pea seed-borne mosaic virus PSbMV Pea thrips Kakothrips pisivorus Peach–potato aphid Myzus persicae Pegomya hyoscyami beet leaf miner Pemphigus bursarius lettuce root aphid Phytomyza gymnostoma allium leaf miner Phytomyza rufipes cabbage leaf miner Pieris brassicae large white butterfly Pieris rapae small white butterfly Plutella xylostella diamond-back moth Pollen beetle Meligethes spp. Potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Potato cyst nematode Globodera spp. Potato leafhoppers Potato leaf roll virus PLRV Potato virus A PVA Potato virus Y PVY Psila rosae carrot fly Psylliodes chrysocephala cabbage stem flea beetle Pygmy beetle Atomaria linearis Rape winter stem weevil Ceutorhynchus pictarsis Rhopalosiphum padi bird cherry–oat aphid Robber flies Asilidae Root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. Rose–grain aphid Metopolophium dirhodum Rove beetles Staphylinidae Saddle gall midge Haplodiplosis marginata Sawflies Hymenoptera Scaptomyza flava brassica leaf miner Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Sitobion avenae grain aphid Sitodiplosis mosellana orange wheat blossom midge Sitona lineatus pea and bean weevil Slugs Small white butterfly Pieris rapae Soil pest complex Soldier beetles Cantharidae Spiders mites Arachnida Spraing Springtails Stem nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci Stubby root nematodes Swede midge Contarinia nasturtii Swift moth Korscheltellus lupulinus Symphylids Tandonia spp. keeled slug Tarnished plant bug Lygus rugulipennis Tetranychus urticae two-spotted spider mites Thrips Thysanoptera Thrips angusticeps field thrips Thrips tabaci onion thrips Thysanoptera thrips Tipula spp. leatherjackets Tobacco rattle virus TRV Trichodorus spp. stubby root nematodes Turnip mosaic virus TuMV Turnip moth Agrotis segetum Turnip sawfly Athalia rosae Turnip yellows virus TuYV Two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae Wasps Hymenoptera Wheat bulb fly Delia coarctata Wheat shoot beetle Helophorus nubilus Wheat stem sawfly Cephus pygmaeus Willow–carrot aphid Cavariella aegopodii Wireworms Agriotes spp. Yellow cereal fly Opomyza florum Yellow wheat blossom midge Contarinia tritici Zabrus tenebrioides cereal ground beetle